The XPS probes the energetic repartition of electrons in a material (core and valence level), on its surface (analysis depth about 5 nm). This technique is used to determine the elementary chemical composition of the surface (all elements included except H and He). Advanced study gives access to the oxidation level of the atoms and to their close chemical environment. Eventually, we can determine the electronic structure of materials coupling XPS analysis of valence bands with quantic calculi.
More precisely, the XPS makes it possible to:
- Study the chemical composition of the surfaces and of the interfaces
- Study the composition of passivation layers formed on the electrodes
- Study electronic transfers (oxidation, reduction) when the electrodes are working monitoring the oxidation levels of metallic elements.
- Study degradation mechanisms, electrode/electrolyte surface reactivity
- Confirm experimentally the valence electronic structure of materials predicted by calculi etc…
- XPS Kratos Axis Ultra, equipped with a glovebox under argon controlled atmosphere (coupling/ Micromeritics Autochem 2920 – chimisorption of gaseous probes…)
- XPS Thermo Khalpha
- Nanoprobe Auger (SAM: Scanning Auger Microscopy) JEOL - JAMP 9500F, Samples can be introduced via an under-vacuum transfer cell from a glovebox under argon controlled atmosphere. Mapping of the repartition of the elements on surface (depth analysis 5 nm), lateral resolution 10 nm.
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