Use in Aerospace
Planes, satellites and else are very energy-demanding. In the case of planes, batteries are still far from replacing kerosene. Yet, we will note that supercapacitors have already been used in the A380 and more precisely regarding doors opening in case of emergency.
Satellites have long been motivating research in the domain of energy storage and conversion. Indeed, we should recall that the first spatial use of solar cells (9% yield) took place in 1958 with the American satellite Vanguard and the same year with the Russian satellite Sputnik III. This solar cell use must be associated to a battery to meet the satellite energy demands whether it is exposed or not (eclipse) to the sun when in orbit. For information, a low earth orbit satellite (550km) will be exposed to 40000 eclipses, which means 40000 partial charges/discharges during its life span (e.g. 7 years). For such applications, the weight of the battery is becoming an important figure . Indded, each added kg will shorten the satellite lifetime in orbit by 2 months. This is why, since 1958, Ni-H2 batteries due to their lightness have been a technology of choice in the domain of satellites. Yet Li-ion batteries are presently pushing them into second position.