Use in medicine
Electrochemical storage is equally essential in the medical field with however a bigger use of cells than batteries until now. Pacemakers and hearing aids, to name but two, use batteries. Recent developments, notably regarding treatments of heart disease (heart pumps and else), involve batteries that can be recharged by induction. Yet, this kind of applications demands smaller and smaller devices but having more energy to ensure multiple functions. This led to the arrival of 3D batteries to meet the demands from the bio-medical and from in vivo micro-machinery such as pacemakers, defibrillators, spinal cord stimulator, etc. This is a fast developing area. For example, in the US there is a 10% yearly increase in these micro-machineries. RS2E will invest this area of applications via its research on 3D micro-batteries.